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Click 56 year old male with distal left superficial femoral artery arteriovenous fistula. Digital Subtraction Angiogram of left lower limb. Real time digital subtraction image during contrast injection shows contrast filling the arterio-venous fistula with well opacified early draining superficial femoral vein with bilobed pseudoaneurysm and preferential flow into the fistula rather than the distal arterial system. 80 kV, 320 mA, 2.56 mAs and 4/sec frame rate.

Click 56 year old male with distal superficial femoral artery arteriovenous fistula. Road map image post-contrast visualization of pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula showing the process of stent deployment by withdrawing the retractable sheath over the self-expandable stent, maintaining the stent in place. (Artery forceps tip seen is kept over the skin as an external marking guide to the mouth of fistula). 80 kV, 320 mA, 2.56 mAs and 4/sec frame rate.

Click 36 year old male with distal left mid-thigh femoral arteriovenous fistula. Digital Subtraction Angiogram of left lower limb with catheter tip at the external iliac artery, venous phase shows dilated external iliac veins with lateral displacement (due to a giant pelvic venous aneurysm). 80 kV, 320 mA, 2.56 mAs and 4/sec frame rate.

Click 36 year old male with distal left mid-thigh femoral arteriovenous fistula. Digital Subtraction Angiogram (Road-map) of left lower limb shows arteriovenous fistula with deployed stent across the mouth of the fistula expanded using balloon injected with diluted contrast to ensure proximal and distal graft vessel apposition to seal the site of entry into the pseudoaneurysm. (Note the slight misregistration of the stent and the expanded balloon over the road map depiction of the artery due to patient motion). 80 kV, 320 mA, 2.56 mAs and 4/sec frame rate.