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This case report demonstrates that lithium therapy should be considered in the differential diagnoses of patients with goiter and high radioiodine uptake. All homogenously increased radioactive iodine uptake is not due to Graves' disease, particularly in patients treated with lithium. Recognition of this phenomenon would prevent misdiagnosis of Graves' disease and unwarranted treatment with radioactive iodine or thionamides.






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Lithium therapy: an unusual cause of elevated and diffuse radioactive iodine uptake

Free full text article: Lithium therapy: an unusual cause of elevated and diffuse radioactive iodine uptake

Abstract
Lithium carbonate, a widely used treatment for bipolar disorders, is associated with goiter, hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. However, the effect of lithium to increase radioactive iodine uptake has received little attention, thus, making Lithium a confounding factor in the interpretation of thyroid radionuclide studies. We herein report a case of misinterpreted high radioactive iodine uptake in a euthyroid, lithium-treated goitrous patient. We conclude that lithium therapy should be considered in the etiologic diagnoses of patients with goiter and homogenously elevated radioiodine uptake. It is pertinent to recognize this phenomenon in order to prevent unwarranted treatment with radioactive iodine or thionamides.






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