Question:

Which of the following are true regarding development of pulmonary arteries?
1. Main pulmonary artery develops from the fourth aortic arch.
2. Absent pulmonary artery is due to involution of the sixth aortic arch
3. The proximal portion of the sixth aortic arch becomes the ductus arteriosus.
4. In absence of a pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus communicates with the intrapulmonary arteries.
5. In the absence of a pulmonary artery, collaterals most commonly arise from internal mammary arteries.





Answer:

The correct answers for the question "Which of the following are true regarding development of pulmonary arteries?" are:

2. Absent pulmonary artery is due to involution of the sixth aortic arch

4. In absence of a pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus communicates with the intrapulmonary arteries.



Explanation
1.    Main pulmonary artery develops from the pulmonary arterial part of the truncus arteriosus [The main pulmonary artery is derived from the truncoaortic sac].

2.    The proximal portions of the sixth aortic arches become the extrapulmonary pulmonary arteries, and if they regress, there is absence on that side. [The intrapulmonary pulmonary arteries arise from the lung buds and the extrapulmonary pulmonary arteries arise from the proximal portion of the sixth aortic arch.]

3.    The distal portions of the sixth aortic arches form the ductus arteriosus. [The ductus arteriosus, which forms from the distal portion of the sixth arches, connects to the primitive dorsal aorta, which becomes the underside of the aortic arch ipsilateral to the arch or the base of the innominate artery contralateral to the arch.]

4.    When the proximal portion of the sixth arches involutes, the intrapulmonary arteries connect with the distal portion of the sixth arches [An absent pulmonary artery is caused by the involution of the proximal sixth aortic arch and persistence of the connection of the intrapulmonary pulmonary artery to the distal sixth aortic arch]

5.    Most commonly, collaterals arise from the bronchial arteries.[ Collaterals to the affected lung usually arise from bronchial arteries]



From the manuscript:
Incidentally detected unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with pulmonary hypoplasia in a 67 year old woman
Radiology Case. 2010 Nov; 4(11):32-37


This article belongs to the Chest section.




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From the manuscript

Incidentally detected unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with pulmonary hypoplasia in a 67 year old woman

Free full text article: Incidentally detected unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with pulmonary hypoplasia in a 67 year old woman

Abstract
Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis is commonly seen associated with other congenital cardiovascular defects, when it is detected early in life, but isolated absence of the pulmonary artery is a rare entity, usually detected in adulthood. The latter patients are usually asymptomatic or might present with varied non-specific manifestations such as respiratory tract infections and hemoptysis. This report describes the imaging findings of a 67 year old female with absence of the right pulmonary artery. The embryology and clinical manifestations of the condition are reviewed.






References



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