Question:

Which is the typical demographic group and presenting symptom of spontaneous pneumomediastinum?
1. Elderly adults, with chest pain
2. Young females, with dyspnea
3. Young males, with dyspnea
4. Young males, with chest pain
5. Elderly females, with chest pain





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "Which is the typical demographic group and presenting symptom of spontaneous pneumomediastinum? " is:

4. Young males, with chest pain



Explanation
`Choice 4` applies based on a review of the cases studies in the literature. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum typically presents most in healthy young male adults. While most authors have suggested a male predominance [9], this has been debated [2]. The most commonly reported clinical manifestation is chest pain followed by dyspnea, cough, and subcutaneous emphysema or neck swelling [2].

`Choices 1, 2 and 3` provide the incorrect demographics and `Choice 3` states incorrectly that dyspnea is the most common presenting symptom, while it is chest pain.



From the manuscript:
Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause
Radiology Case. 2010 Nov; 4(11):38-43


This article belongs to the Chest section.




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From the manuscript

Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause

Free full text article: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause

Abstract
Pneumomediastinum is usually first identified radiographically in the emergency department. Distinguishing benign from more ominous causes, such as esophageal rupture, is imperative, particularly in the setting of associated esophageal disease. We describe a case, with correlative imaging, of spontaneous pneumomediastinum as the initial presentation of achalasia. A general discussion of spontaneous pneumomediastinum is also provided, including the pathophysiology, precipitating and predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, role of radiology in the diagnosis as well as the radiographic signs.






References



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