Question:

How do people usually get affected by schistosomes?
1. schistosomes enter the body following contact with infested surface water.
2. only via direct contact with blood.
3. via coughing and sneezing of infected patients.
4. dependent on the gender, mainly older women get infected.
5. schistosomes are opportunistic parasites that mainly affect immunocompromised patients.





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "How do people usually get affected by schistosomes?" is:

1. schistosomes enter the body following contact with infested surface water.



Explanation
1.    Schistosomes enter the body following contact with infested surface water. This particularly affects people engaged in agriculture and fishing or people swimming in contaminated water.

2.    Infected individuals shed schistosome eggs into water via urine or feces. The larvae hatching from these eggs penetrate aquatic snails, the intermediate hosts, and  subsequently undergo several cycles of multiplication. The larval stage infective for humans, the cercariae, is released into the water and will penetrate the skin of the final host. When invading the skin, the cercariae shed their tail and turn into the juvenile form, schistosomulae. Infection via direct contact with blood can be expected to be a rather exceptional way of infection.

3.    see 2.

4.    Schistosomiasis has no gender predilection.

5.    Schistosomes are not opportunistic parasites. Early pulmonary compromise is mostly limited to nonimmune patients, usually travelers from developed countries that have never been exposed before. In immunocompromised patients the clinical course can be expected to be more severe.



From the manuscript:
Pulmonary Schistosomiasis Imaging Features
Radiology Case. 2010 Sep; 4(9):37-43


This article belongs to the Chest section.




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From the manuscript

Pulmonary Schistosomiasis Imaging Features

Free full text article: Pulmonary Schistosomiasis  Imaging Features

Abstract
Schistosomiasis is a helminthic infection that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Pulmonary involvement can be divided into two categories: acute or chronic compromise. Chronic and recurrent infection develops in persons living or travelling in endemic areas. In the lungs, granuloma formation and fibrosis around the schistosome eggs retained in the pulmonary vasculature may result in obliterative arteriolitis and pulmonary hypertension leading to cor pulmonale. Acute schistosomiasis is associated with primary exposure and is commonly seen in nonimmune travelers. The common CT findings in acute pulmonary schistosomiasis are small pulmonary nodules ranging from 2 to 15 mm and larger nodules with ground glass-opacity halo. Katayama fever is a severe clinical manifestation of acute involvement. We present a case of pulmonary involvement in schistosomiasis and provide a discussion about typical imaging findings in the acute and chronic form.






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