Question:

One characteristic neurodegenerative cause of restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia bilaterally is:
1. Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease
2. Alzheimer`s disease
3. Multiple systems atrophy
4. Parkinson`s disease
5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "One characteristic neurodegenerative cause of restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia bilaterally is:" is:

1. Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease



Explanation
Given that the areas of restricted diffusion in our patient initially appeared bilaterally and restricted to the basal ganglia, we should note the differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia. These include toxic poisoning from carbon monoxide, methanol, and cyanide; metabolic disease such as hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, and Wilson`s disease; degenerative diseases such as Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease, which parenthetically also leads to restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia; neoplasms such as primary CNS lymphoma; and infections such as flavivirus encephalitis and CNS toxoplasmosis.



From the manuscript:
Neurocandidiasis: a case report and consideration of the causes of restricted diffusion
Radiology Case. 2013 May; 7(5):1-5


This article belongs to the Neuro section.




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From the manuscript

Neurocandidiasis: a case report and consideration of the causes of restricted diffusion

Free full text article: Neurocandidiasis: a case report and consideration of the causes of restricted diffusion

Abstract
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging has risen to the forefront of imaging for acute stroke. However, the differential diagnosis of restricted diffusion is wide and includes ischemia, metabolic derangements, infections, and highly-cellular masses. We present a case of central nervous system (CNS) candidiasis presenting radiographically as bilateral punctate areas of restricted magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion in the basal ganglia. This case illustrates the value of carefully considering the causes of restricted diffusion in the brain, notably to be broader than acute stroke and to include invasive fungal infections.






References



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